by Clothilde Sins

Whale hunting
Throughout the world, there are different species of whales. Of the cetacean family, there are about fifteen species including the baleen whales (blue, grey and rorqual whales). As marine individuals they are essential to the biodiversity and functioning of the marine environment.

The most important of these are the grey whale in the north-west Pacific (estimated at 120 individuals), the right whale in the north-west Atlantic (490) and the blue whale, an emblematic species as the largest existing animal, whose world population is estimated at between 1,150 and 4,500. The whales are threatened by accidental catches, collisions with boats and noise pollution that disrupts their orientation and feeding.

Thanks to the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1931, whales have been granted protected species status.
The International Whaling Commission (IWC) in Cambridge has been regulating the hunting of whales and cetaceans since 1946. 88 countries are represented at these meetings, both pro-whaling and anti-whaling.

Whaling was restricted by various treaties, but some countries still engage in commercial whaling.
Norway and Iceland hunt hundreds of whales a year and have rejected the IWC moratorium.

In terms of aboriginal whaling, the IWC has set a quota that is reserved for communities that can prove that it is necessary for their tradition. Alaska, Washington State, Greenland, Chukotka and St. Vinvento and the Grenadines are part of this group.

Japan is referred to as a scientific hunt. However, they have committed themselves to respecting the order of the United Nations judicial body.
Years	Protected whale
1931	Bowhead whale
1935	Southern right whale, North Atlantic right whale
1937	Grey whale
1964	Humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere
1967	Blue whale in the Southern Hemisphere
1979	Sei whale (some exceptions)
1981	Sperm whale (some exceptions)

Deals with the way they were persecuted and still: Japan
Conservation of the wales
The damage wales: pollution (plastic, chemical from industry)

The army: the sound of the submarine dive them mad 

The secret of the whales by James Cameron
With National Geographic, the famous director James Cameron makes an unforgettable documentary on whale culture. It studies the communication skills and social structure of five different species: orcas, humpbacks, belugas, narwhals and sperm whales. This four-part documentary took three years to film in 24 different locations.

Heathcote Williams: Whale’s nation
The poet Heathcote Williams also wrote the poem Whales Nation, an ode to the intelligence and complexity of this incredible mammal. 
The rights to Whales Nation were sold at the Frankfurt Book Fair in 1988 for 100,000. The poet was keen to donate his share to environmental organisations.

According to Philip Hoare “Whale Nation became the most powerful argument for the newly instigated worldwide ban on whaling, and for a moment, back in 1988, it seemed as if a shameful chapter in human history might finally be drawing to a close."

Beluga whales 
Belugas are very social whales. They live, hunt and migrate in groups. Thanks to their bulbous "melon" forehead, they can change their facial expression. This forehead shape is flexible and changes shape. They are also called "sea canaries" because they produce a series of chirps, clicks, whistles and squeaks. They feed on different species of fish such as herring, salmon, shrimp, crabs and molluscs. When the ice forms in the Arctic, they migrate south in autumn. They return when the ice melts in spring.
Belugas are important to marine life and its health as they are at the top of the food chain. They are part of the indigenous community of the Arctic. Belugas live in a cold environment and their environment depends on the ice at sea. They are therefore affected by climate change. Their living environment is in danger.

Baleen Whales 
Cetaceans are separated into two groups: odontocetes and mysticetes. Otherwise, the difference is their dentations. Odontocetes have teeth and mysticetes have baleen.
These two species have different lifestyles and functions. Starting with their diets. "Baleen whales have a much specialised feeding pattern, the prey and habitats they seek are limited: they need small animals living in large groups. For toothed whales, on the other hand, there are a thousand and one possibilities: small or huge prey, solitary or grouped, near the surface or at depth, along the coast or offshore, in fresh or salt water. This great diversity translates into a large number of habitats, which has favoured the diversification of toothed whales."

The baleen whale group includes four families: rorquals, grey whales, right whales and pygmy whales.
Baleen whales are made of the same substance as hair and nails, keratin.

All whales have baleen instead of teeth which they use to collect shrimp-like krill, plankton and small fish from the sea. These bristly baleen plates filter, sift, sieve or trap the whales' favorite prey from seawater inside their mouths. Baleen is made out of keratin, the same protein that makes up our fingernails and hair. The baleen of the bowhead whale can be 4 meters long.

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